Engineering · Spotlights · Pensacola Christian College

Engineering

PCC graduates and students use their training in remarkable ways. Read about how God is using them in their field of study.

PCC’s engineering program teaches the fundamentals necessary for applying God’s natural laws to design technological benefits. Graduates use their to serve God in various engineering fields.

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Ken Harkness ’03
  • Structural Engineer, David Norris Engineering

“I design and engineer carports, screen rooms, glass rooms, and pool cages, working mainly with aluminum. We provide signed and sealed drawings in order to pull a construction permit. I often deal with building officials and field inspectors about issues that come up in the field. The most rewarding part of engineering is being able to help others by giving them a good job in a timely manner, and even being able to save them some money and heartache at the same time.

“PCC’s training has equipped me to do everything with excellence. During my time at PCC, I enjoyed what I learned from all my classes.”

Steve Simmermaker ’08

Steve Simmermaker

  • Engineer/Project Manager, Thompson Power Systems
  • Professional Engineer (FL)

Steve recently completed a major project for ThyssenKrupp Steel, developing and designing a system of backup generators to protect expensive equipment and materials.

“My main responsibility with Thompson Power Systems is to manage projects, which includes developing project-specific drawings, designing solutions to meet customer’s demands, and providing on-site technical support.

“PCC’s engineering program taught me the scientific fundamentals, how and where to find answers, and how to do my work under pressure. The design classes explored far more than just the fundamentals, reaching into the areas of unusual site problems, safety codes, deadlines, etc.”

Mike Anderson ’90

Mike Anderson

  • Engineering Manager/Project Manager, PEDCO Engineering & Architecture Services
  • Professional Engineer (MI, IN, OH)

“In my current position, I have the opportunity to manage and hire engineers from many other well known universities. I feel that my overall education at PCC not only was equal to, but exceeded the education that is attained at other engineering programs at other universities. Engineering is all about applying the theory and concepts presented during your education to real world situations. I feel PCC provided the required critical-thinking education to prepare me, and others, to excel in the field. PCC provided the framework required for my present duties by teaching me how to think and research to stay up to date in my field.”

Stephanie Wind ’10

Stephanie Wind

  • Development Engineer, Weatherford International

“As a development engineer, I develop new concepts/tools that will be used when cementing a casing or liner string. Each tool is set up as a project, and as an engineer, I typically manage –35 projects at a time. I manage a project from the start when the design requirements for the tool are established to the time it’s moved into production. Projects take a lot of time and energy to complete, and issues such as manufacturing delays or failing a lab test can quickly put a project behind schedule. It’s always exciting to finish a project, and it’s even more exciting when you have the satisfaction of completing it on time.

“The training I received at PCC helped me to see the importance of being professional, technically accurate, and timely. All three are necessary to succeed. Writing thorough and professional lab reports, delivering clear and concise presentations in a business format, and leading and participating in peer design reviews are skills that I use on a routine basis.

“Within the last 2½ years, I have had tools run in Malaysia, Thailand, Russia, and Saudi Arabia, and I’ve had the opportunity to work with engineers from all over the world. [It is fulfilling to see] a tool successfully pass testing and be moved into production for worldwide use.”

Brian DeFord ’90

Brian Deford

  • Senior Mechanical Design Engineer, Intel)

Mechanical engineering concentration grad Brian DeFord (’90, AZ) is a Senior Mechanical Design Engineer with Intel, the world’s largest semiconductor manufacturer. He helps develop new technologies that enable Intel to test next-generation products, primarily Central Processing Units (CPUs)—the brains of personal computers, workstations, servers, and mobile devices such as laptops, tablets, and smart phones.

Brian said, “I am fortunate to work in a technology development group, so I get to work with the latest technology products that are still 2–3 years away from going into consumer products. It is exciting to see the advancements we make in producing smaller, faster, and less expensive products on a continual basis.

“I’ve been at Intel since 1990, and have had the opportunity to perform many roles, from doing classified work with one of our nation’s security agencies while part of Intel’s military division, managing a design engineering group, designing a critical component that is found in almost all computers today, to my current role in research and development engineering.

“I was well prepared for my field because I had practical, hands-on experience designing and testing through the many labs and project teams I was involved in at PCC. This is critical in an environment such as mine, because book knowledge can only take you so far. You must be able to put to practical use the things you learn, and employers are looking for that experience even in new college graduates.

“Discipline and planning become invaluable when your job involves inventing new technologies that have never been tried or thought of before and ensuring they will work flawlessly when needed. These are character traits that are well ingrained at PCC and continue to be core values in my profession.”

PCC mechanical engineering concentration grads are serving God in a variety of engineering fields, including nuclear, aerospace, industrial, and automotive disciplines. By covering in-depth engineering topics, PCC’s program provides a solid foundation for graduate school or fieldwork.

Rich Rowe ’91
  • Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering, Penn State University
  • Operations Supervisor/Licensed Senior Reactor Operator, Exelon Nuclear Corporation
  • Licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

“I work in what is perhaps the most complex engineering facility ever devised. I work with highly intelligent people, and I am entrusted with a grave responsibility. I principally work in the Main Control Room of a two-reactor nuclear generating station, which generates approximately 2,500 Megawatts of electricity, enough to power over 2 million homes. I direct normal plant operations and maintenance. My primary license responsibility is to protect the health and safety of the public. I also direct the refueling of each of the reactors on a periodic basis. Having been trained in the fundamentals of nuclear fission and seeing it in action on a daily basis truly gives me an appreciation for God's handiwork.

“PCC thoroughly prepared me for my following graduate studies. It laid the foundation upon which all my further training was built. The classes that have been the most fundamental to my current field were thermodynamics and fluid mechanics.

“Upon graduation from PCC, I applied to Penn State University for graduate school and was accepted. My studies focused on automatic control systems and robotics, and my research focused on artificial intelligence applied to robotic manipulators. While at Penn State, I interviewed with the 4-star Admiral in charge of the Navy nuclear program in Washington, D.C. It was actually a series of interviews which were essentially a cumulative oral final exam covering any class in my undergraduate and graduate transcripts. Many intelligent grads from distinguished institutions also interviewed; not everybody was accepted.

“After Penn State, I went to Officer Candidate School where I earned my commission. I then attended two years of intensive nuclear training and submarine school. More highly qualified students did not successfully complete the program. I subsequently served on two nuclear fast-attack submarines. I did a tour as an instructor at a nuclear operations training facility and a tour at U.S. Strategic Command planning Tomahawk cruise missile missions. I then separated from the Navy and was hired by Exelon Nuclear (the largest nuclear corporation in the U.S. and the third largest in the world). License training was 2 years in length and was very intense. Less than half the class finished successfully. All were highly qualified and highly trained just to be admitted into the program.”

Daniel Corliss ’92
  • CAD Designer, Kenneth Horne and Associates (Kenton, OH)
  • Certified EIT

“My daily responsibilities include drawing, and assisting in designing and permitting new construction. My favorite part about working in the engineering field is watching projects I have helped design being built. PCC’s program helped stretch my mind so I could deal with the everyday work of engineering. The key aspect of PCC’s training was the report writing and CAD training.”

Jonathan Rose ’08

JonathanRose

  • Mechanical Engineer, Rockwell Collins

“At Rockwell Collins, I aid in the design and testing of radios for military aircraft. I troubleshoot issues that may occur when building and testing the radios, and run tests to ensure the radios will survive the environments they will be in. I enjoy having a hands-on job and seeing something I have designed on the computer being built in real life. PCC taught me how to work hard, and provided me with a good technical base to work from.”

Seth Patterson, EIT ’10

Seth Patterson

  • MSE Electrical Engineering: Oklahoma Christian University
  • Payload Systems Engineer, Boeing Satellite Systems

“I grew up in a public school and attended a secular university before I came to PCC. Getting to study in a decidedly Christian atmosphere was more than refreshing—it was life changing.  The part of PCC’s training that was the most valuable to me was the chance to meet other Christian young people who shared a similar desire to know God and make Him known, and who were also majoring in engineering.

“My instruction provided a solid introduction to basic circuit analysis, electromagnetics, and communication theory.  The courses helped me begin to develop the analytical and critical thinking skills necessary for graduate coursework.  The new equipment in the electrical engineering lab allowed me to receive one-on-one instruction while I was working on my senior design project.

“Now I get the chance to put all that math to work doing simulation analysis of satellite hardware!”

Timothy Reeves ’05

TimothyReeves

  • Graduate Research Assistant/Ph.D. student, Clemson University
  • Previously a Mechanical Project Engineer, ThyssenKrupp Waupaca

“At Clemson, I am developing a computational material model for sand for the simulation of lunar vehicle wheels in lunar soil. I enjoy learning about the created world, overcoming intellectual challenges, and making life better for people. Starting in August, my graduate studies and living costs will be completely funded by the South Carolina Space Grant Consortium graduate Student Research Program Fellowship.

“I arrived in graduate school with an overall grasp on engineering principles at least equal to the grasp of my peers who graduated from state schools.”

Brian Ott ’91
  • Owner/Engineer, BNO
  • Consulting Professional Engineer (NJ)

“At PCC, my course schedule and daily student life built discipline into my life.  That discipline has allowed me to manage my own business, where I am responsible for all work, every client relationship, and meeting every deadline personally.

“I design renewable energy systems such as solar and biomass, and I assist companies and churches in reducing their utility use.  God led me through several positions with large energy firms, all of which dealt with the conservation of energy.  The experience I gained at each company has enabled me to consult independently for the past 8 years.”

Josh Doering ’99

JoshDoering

  • Senior Vice President, IEC Corporation, a multi-discipline engineering and consulting firm
  • Professional Engineer (CA, OR, WA, AK)

“I had the opportunity to be a part of building IEC from a two-person company to what it is today, with offices in Sacramento, Portland, and San Diego, and a client list that includes most of the major utilities on the west coast. My daily responsibilities include managing the day-to-day activities of the company's Portland (OR) office, developing new clients, and managing some of our larger design and/or consulting contracts. These contracts include projects such as the design of gas turbine power plants, development of wind turbine projects for utilities, designing substations, performing due diligence and feasibility studies, and providing construction management services to large utility projects. Many times utility clients will ask us to help them set up and manage projects with budgets of more than $400 million.

“PCC’s engineering program gave me the tools and confidence I needed to adapt quickly in the workplace. No engineer comes out of college knowing everything that is necessary for his work—no employer expects it either. What employers do expect is fertile ground that is prepped and ready for further instruction. That is what PCC provided.”

S. Brooke Farrington ’97
  • Sr. Mechanical Engineer, Rockwell Collins

“I work in the Government Systems side of Rockwell Collins, where we get the opportunity to enhance our country’s defense by working on various military products. I am part of a mechanical engineering group that designs, analyzes, develops, and tests black box type packages for electronics. I have had the opportunity to work on products that enhance our Ballistic Missile Defense, ground-to-air communications, and GPS navigation systems. I not only get to design and develop an idea, but I also get to take part in the build and test of that idea. The biggest reward is the sense of patriotism I feel from working on government projects that assist our soldiers and protect our country. I have had many achievements on the job, but none that I can share due to government security.

“PCC’s engineering courses were all major contributors to what I do day by day at my job, but the Bible courses gave me the firm foundation I needed to work in a secular environment as a Christian who just happens to be a mechanical engineer. PCC instills a strong work ethic, not only in the classroom, but also in the on-campus work program. I also enhanced my people skills through my collegian activities and speech classes.”

Jim Edwards ’06

Jim Edwards

  • Unmanned Vehicle Research, U.S. Navy

When Jim Edwards graduated with an engineering degree, electrical concentration, he spent a few years at a small defense contractor working on test equipment for aircraft payloads and unmanned air vehicles. But when a civilian position in the Navy opened, he accepted the job.

Now, he oversees and performs research on unmanned vehicles, primarily for the U.S. Navy but occasionally for other branches of the armed forces. Jim has worked on several different unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and both rotary and fixed-winged vehicles; however, most of his work has been on unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) for explosive disposal (i.e., bomb-squad-type robots). He said, “Developing robots that make our lives easier and that perform tasks that can preserve our lives is very rewarding.”

But the job also has challenges. "When using new technologies, the risk of failure is high,” Jim said. “Putting long hours of effort into a project only for it to come up short of expectations can be very disappointing."

PCC’s engineering program taught Jim to think critically and logically and to step through problems. “When designing or repairing a broken system, it is important to understand why and how your actions are affecting the system and its intended users,” he said. “Proceeding step by step to a logical conclusion is essential to this process for an engineering solution to be effective. PCC’s approach of learning the basics and applying what you know to new situations has served me well."

He hopes to continue his skill development. “I would like my future work to continue to be beneficial for easing the workload and helping to protect lives of its users.”

In all he does, Jim's primary goal is to bring glory to God. "I believe my workplace goals of hard work, integrity, honesty, and strong character have been blessed and have allowed others to see the difference a relationship with Christ can make."

View more information about Electrical Engineering Concentration at PCC.

Robert Richards ’00

RobertRichards

  • Professional Engineer (TX)
  • Project Manager, Goetting and Associates engineering firm

“Our firm specializes in the HVAC branch of mechanical engineering. I train younger mechanical EITs (engineers-in-training) in mechanical systems design. I enjoy teaching them basic HVAC design and helping them incorporate important principles and their own creative ideas into each system they design.

“PCC’s mechanical engineering concentration was invaluable to me. During my tenure at PCC, each professor taught me more than engineering principles that can be obtained at any secular university. Each professor personally involved themselves in teaching their students. They emphasized learning to think like an engineer. My professors continually encouraged me to be practical, be creative, and be diligent. Most importantly, they always reminded me to give God the glory. They also incorporated their own personal engineering experiences, which helped me understand the realities and challenges that I would encounter in my engineering career. Each class was challenging, yet each professor was devoted to helping me overcome those challenges.”

Justin Egan ’11

Egan

  • Electronics Engineer, KSR International

Electrical engineering concentration grad Justin Egan (’11, ON, Canada) is an electronics engineer with KSR International, a leader in engineering and manufacturing of sensors, controls, and pedals for the automotive industry. In his job, Justin develops noncontacting sensors found throughout standard vehicles. “I am doing exactly what I want to do,” he said.

Several months after he graduated in May of 2011, Justin found a position as a measurement analyst for a large gas company. Although the position was comfortable, he never stopped the search for his dream job as an electrical engineer.

At the end of the year, the sensor manager at KSR International called, asking Justin to come in for an interview. “A few days later, I received an incredible offer from them, which I immediately accepted,” he said.

Justin desired specific attributes in a job; he wanted to work hands-on designing microelectronics in the professional atmosphere of a large company, and he wanted to travel. “God provided all of my desires with this position at KSR International as an electronics engineer,” he said.

Justin feels prepared for his career because of his quality education from dedicated faculty at PCC. “I learned not only engineering applications but also discipline, professionalism, and vital spiritual principles. Though I have much to learn as I start my career, I know that my academic and spiritual foundations are strong.”

PCC engineering grads are serving God in a variety of fields, including nuclear, aerospace, industrial, and automotive disciplines. By covering in-depth engineering topics, PCC’s engineering programs provide a solid foundation for graduate school or fieldwork.

View more information about Electrical Engineering Concentration at PCC.

Stephen Wiemero ’03
  • Product Test Engineer, Ford Motor Company

“As a product test engineer, I am responsible for axle durability and efficiency testing. The Design Engineers send me their components and I put them to the test. I use dynamometers to simulate conditions that represent real-world or worse-than-real-world events that our axles will face. The usual end result is a bucket of metal and a pile of data. It gets fun at this point because I become a detective and analyze that data to figure out what happened. It is a very hands-on, involved job.

“My job requires a broad scope of knowledge and skills. On a daily basis, I have to employ knowledge from several different engineering disciplines, including mechanical, electrical, controls, computer programming, and project management. My education at PCC gave me the foundational knowledge that I needed to work in this demanding environment.”

Shane Elwart ’98

Shane Elwart

  • Vehicle Controls Subject Matter Expert, Ford Motor Company
  • Inventor on 17 issued patents; 37 patent applications
  • Published paper on advanced emissions control through the Society of Automotive Engineering

“I design, plan, and resolve vehicle control issues for Ford’s current and future production vehicles. I have spent the last couple of years developing a global control vehicle architecture and controls system, which will be part of every vehicle that Ford manufactures, regardless of engine/motor type, transmission, driver interface, instrument cluster, braking and chassis control systems, electrical, and a variety of hybrid powertrain variations.

“PCC helped prepare me in many ways, and the focus on the Lord was key. The classes helped broaden my field of capability, and all of the teachers were great. My favorite engineering memories were from the design contest each year.”

Daniel Rairigh ’94
  • Master’s in Electrical Engineering: Michigan State University
  • Systems Engineer, Raytheon Company
  • Author of numerous published research papers

“I work with the requirements management team on a portion of large, complex development projects. My job is to understand the requirements on our product and then ensure the little pieces will function together to meet the requirements. To achieve this, I help develop the requirements for each piece and also review the designs and test plans. I have written a number of papers on my research, which have been presented in Ireland, Italy, Korea, and the U.S.A.

“PCC gave me the fundamental tools I needed.” Daniel switched from a mechanical engineering concentration to electrical engineering when he went to graduate school. “That meant I had a lot of ground to cover very fast to come up to speed. The fundamentals of mathematics, electricity, control systems, etc. that I learned at PCC gave me the tools I needed to quickly understand what I was learning in this new field.”

Jason Phipps ’00

Jason Phipps

  • Mechanical Engineer, OWPR Architects and Engineers
  • Professional Engineer (VA); LEED certified

“I coordinate the HVAC system with contractors, owners, and interdisciplinary engineers and architects from preliminary design through completed construction of the project. I design HVAC systems to meet the latest code and energy requirements.

“I left a large Virginia state university to attend PCC, and found my engineering knowledge equaled or even exceeded what I had previously been taught, mainly due to godly teaching standards and close relationships with peers and professors alike. PCC helped me avoid compromise in my workplace and choose not to climb the ladder of success man’s way.”

Scott Miller ’00
  • Master of Science in Industrial Engineering, University of Pittsburgh
  • Mechanical Design Engineer, Lockheed Martin Space Systems

“PCC’s faculty are there for one reason—service. I remember spending countless hours working with my professors, one-on-one. On the contrary, public university faculty tend to prioritize their research and funding above teaching.” 

John Jay, EIT ’08
  • Electrical Power System Supervisor, Severstal (fourth largest steelmaker in the U.S.)

“My job responsibilities range from the daily manpower management to project management. I supervise the instrumentation and electrical shops for the power and utility department. My favorite part is being able to take a problem, investigate it, and come up with a solution. It is almost like being a detective at times, having to gather all of the info and look at all the data to determine what actually happened. There is no shortage of opportunities for doing this, since the plant is seven square miles of buildings and distribution systems.

“PCC’s program gave me a solid academic base of the fundamentals needed to be an electrical engineer. One year after graduating, I took the EIT exam and passed the first time without studying. This made me more aware of how well PCC had prepared me, and the quality of the education.”

David Nodland ’08
  • Graduate Student, Missouri University of Science & Technology

“Between completing my undergraduate program and beginning graduate school, I worked as an engineer for a subsidiary of Caterpillar.

“Nearly all of the graduate schools to which I applied granted me admission. PCC’s rigorous electrical engineering concentration prepared me well for graduate school. Although graduate studies are more challenging than undergraduate studies, my education at PCC provided me with a solid grasp of the fundamentals of engineering necessary for more advanced studies.

“In graduate school and in industry, I have found that two components of PCC’s training have been of particular value. The first of these is PCC’s emphasis on character and professionalism, and the second is the Electrical Engineering Design class, which develops a number of essential technical skills. Technical knowledge is necessary to obtain a position in industry or graduate school, but character and professionalism are necessary to retain that position. In many cases, other colleges merely impart academic knowledge to their students. PCC’s focus on cultivating character and professionalism in addition to academic knowledge and technical skills distinguishes it from the rest.”

Jared Sostrom, EIT ’07

Jared Sostrom

  • System Engineer, Powder River Energy Corporation

“I am part of keeping the electric system in northeastern Wyoming functional and reliable. My responsibilities include system protection, load analysis, and system reliability.

“PCC’s program gave me the basic knowledge necessary to be effective. It has also prepared me to quickly pick up on-the-job skills. The most valuable part of PCC’s training was the teachers, who strove to help me understand the material.”

John McCracken, BSME MEEM ’09

John McCracken Mechanical Engineering

  • Project Manager, Packsize

When John McCracken graduated with a mechanical engineering concentration degree from PCC in 2009, a struggling economy made finding a job difficult. “God has opened doors as I have tried to do the next right thing and trust Him. It wasn’t easy or anything that happened overnight—it took a lot of faith, hard work, and dedication. It still does.”

After graduation, John worked at Pratt and Whitney, an aerospace engineering corporation. Then he decided to enhance his career by pursuing a master of engineering management at the University of Louisville while still working full time.

At first, John was apprehensive because he had been out of school for several years. “I wasn’t sure how I would compare to my peers from other institutions,” he said. “I quickly learned that I had received a very strong and well–rounded foundation at PCC.”

John gained confirmation of his solid undergrad education when he finished first in his class and graduated summa cum laude. “The experience made me thankful not only for the biblical worldview I received while attending PCC, but also the quality and standards of the academics,” he said.

Currently, John works as a continuous improvement manager at Packsize, an on–demand packaging company, one of the fastest–growing companies in North America. “My position is about making data–driven decisions to increase our effectiveness and efficiency both with our employees and customers,” he said.

Aside from what he learned in engineering classes, John says the most valuable training he received at PCC was in time management. “Doing things right the first time is extremely important in an innovative environment,” John said. “The ability to lead, effectively communicate, and manage multiple tasks simultaneously is key in my position. I stayed very busy at PCC with my classes, but also had many other opportunities to play sports, work on campus, make friends, serve in leadership positions, and get involved with Christian service groups.”

Looking back, John is grateful for the way God has led him. “The best advice I ever received was, when presented with options, always take the one that draws you closer to Him.”

Stephen Sinclair ’10

Stephen Sinclair

  • Engineer, NASA Space Power Facility

Not many people secure a job with NASA fresh out of college, but PCC grad Stephen Sinclair (’10) did just that after earning a degree in engineering with a mechanical concentration.

The summer before his senior year, Stephen acquired an engineering internship at NASA with the help of a contact in the agency. During the internship, he impressed his management by helping find solutions to some technical problems. By the end of the internship, NASA had offered Stephen a full-time position after his graduation.

Now at the NASA Space Power Facility in Sandusky, Ohio, Stephen tests space flight hardware and equipment. In the past, the facility has tested the Mars rovers, International Space Station components, satellites, and solar array systems. The rockets that Stephen’s group recently tested are primarily used for cargo missions to the International Space Station.

On a daily basis Stephen uses knowledge learned in engineering classes such as Statics, Dynamics, Machine Design, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer. More importantly, he is able to demonstrate character traits of honesty, punctuality, and professionalism developed at PCC. “I came to PCC undisciplined,” he says, “but left with some good ideas of how to conduct myself in a professional setting.”

All of these skills help Stephen as he directs a diverse group of electrical and mechanical technicians, endures schedule pressure, and deals with funding issues. In spite of the job’s challenges, Stephen realizes NASA’s significance in enhancing the communications field and giving the United States better security capabilities. “NASA is the modern pioneer in continuing exploration and discovery into the unknowns of space, resulting in increased technology,” he said. “This makes going to work every day pretty exciting.”

As he continues in the aerospace industry, Stephen is constantly looking for ways to advance and try new things. He even applied to be put into the astronaut training selection pool, though he doubts he’ll be selected. “Being an astronaut was never a childhood dream,” he admits. “But then again, neither was being an engineer at NASA.”

Nathan Chancy ’92
  • Stress Analyst for Spirit Aerosystems; Licensed Professional Engineer
  • Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering, University of Florida

“PCC’s Mechanical Engineering concentration was my first introduction to what the field of engineering was all about. It’s hard to believe now, but I had very little idea what classes like Mechanics, Statics, and Thermodynamics were all about when I first enrolled. The challenges in those classes, and my determination to rise to meet them, gave me a level of confidence where I believed I could be competitive and productive in any work or school environment. At PCC, I realized that I could learn even the most complicated of subjects.”

Jeff Davis ’91

JeffDavis

  • Owner/Engineer, Davis Design and Consulting

“I have worked in engineering my entire career, and have owned and operated a successful engineering design company for about 10 years. PCC’s engineering program taught me the importance of personal and professional growth and integrity, and gave me the math, science, computer, and engineering skills to be an effective and creative engineering problem solver. The strong focus on core math and science skills, and the exposure to a broad range of engineering subjects, is the key training I received at PCC.”

Learn More

See PCC’s electrical and mechanical engineering concentrations.